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SQLcl connect target depends on previous connection

I thought it was a bug for two reasons: first, because I don’t like that my connect destination depends on the context, and then because it is a different behavior than in SQL*Plus. But finally, it is the correct behavior, and the 100% compatibility with SQL*Plus is expected only when SET CLASSIC=ON. And as I was surprised, and I think it can be dangerous, here is a blog post about it. Basically, be very careful if you are connected with a service name and you want to connect locally.

Basically, if you attended my demo about ‘From Transportable Tablespaces to Pluggable Databases’, where I switch between different instances you may have seen that I had to run ‘connect / as sysdba’ two times because the first one failed with invalid username/password

SQL> connect scott/tiger@//localhost/PDB1
Connected.
...
SQL> connect / as sysdba
USER =
URL = jdbc:oracle:oci8:@//localhost/PDB1
Error Message = ORA-01017: invalid username/password; logon denied
 
Warning: You are no longer connected to ORACLE.
 
SQL> connect / as sysdba
Connected.

This is not a big deal, but that means that it tries to connect to //localhost/PDB1 when I wanted to connect locally to my ORACLE_SID environment variable. Here, expecting a bequeath connection, I didn’t provide a password, then I cannot connect to the PDB. But imagine that I use a password, and the password is the same in the two databases… I would have been connected to the wrong database. Just imagine this:

SQL> host echo $ORACLE_SID
TEST
SQL> connect sys/password as sysdba
Connected.
-- checking something on PROD
SQL> connect sys/password@PROD as sysdba
Connected.
...
-- back to TEST (or at least I think so)
SQL> host echo $ORACLE_SID
TEST
SQL> connect sys/password as sysdba
Connected.
-- do terrible things
SQL> drop table VERY_IMPORTANT_TABLE;
Table VERY_IMPORTANT_TABLE dropped.
-- now look where I am:
SQL> show connection
CONNECTION:
SYS@jdbc:oracle:oci8:@PROD AS SYSDBA
CONNECTION_IDENTIFIER:
PROD

Actually, what happens is that when SQLcl is already connected with a connection string (i.e not locally using bequeath) the next connect command will use the same connection string. This means that:

connect user/password

is actually equivalent to

connect user/password@&_CONNECT_IDENTIFIER

SQL*Plus

This behavior has been introduced in SQLcl but this is not how SQL*Plus works:

SQL> connect sys/oracle@//localhost/PDB1 as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> connect / as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> define _CONNECT_IDENTIFIER
DEFINE _CONNECT_IDENTIFIER = "CDB1" (CHAR)

Disconnect

The first solution to avoid this in SQLcl is to always disconnect before you want to connect to a different service:

SQL> connect sys/oracle@//localhost/PDB1 as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> disc
 
Disconnected from Oracle Database 18c Enterprise Edition Release 18.0.0.0.0 - Production
Version 18.2.0.0.0
SQL> connect sys/oracle as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> show connection
CONNECTION:
SYS@jdbc:oracle:oci8:@ AS SYSDBA
CONNECTION_IDENTIFIER:
CDB$ROOT

This is why the second time was ok in my case: first one failed with invalid password and then I was disconnected.

TWO_TASK

The second solution is to set an impossible TWO_TASK (or LOCAL in Windows) so that local connections are impossible:

SQL> connect sys/oracle@//localhost/PDB1 as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> connect sys/oracle as sysdba
USER = sys
URL = jdbc:oracle:oci8:@NoWhere
Error Message = ORA-12154: TNS:could not resolve the connect identifier specified
USER = sys
URL = jdbc:oracle:thin:@NoWhere
Error Message = IO Error: Unknown host specified
USER = sys
URL = jdbc:oracle:thin:@NoWhere:1521/NoWhere
Error Message = IO Error: Unknown host specified

CLASSIC=ON

The third solution is to run SQLcl in SQL*Plus 100% compatible mode:

SQL> connect sys/oracle@//localhost/PDB1 as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> set classic on
SQL> show classic
SQL*Plus mode: ON
SQL> connect / as sysdba
Connected.

Here we have the same behavior as SQL*Plus: no use of current connection string.

The SQL CLASSIC ON is usually for the output (error messages, autotrace statistics, and a few enhancement made to SQLcl). And the online help still says that it is about output:

SQL> help set classic
SET CLASSIC
SET CLASSIC [ ON | OFF ]
Set classic SQL*Plus Settings on
This will allow scripts which expect traditional output to be honored.

However, it seems that this CLASSIC mode is also very important for connection.

Test and show _CONNECTION_STRING

If you show the connection string at the prompt, this may prevent errors:

SQL> set sqlprompt "_connect_identifier> "
//localhost/CDB2> connect sys/oracle@//localhost/CDB1 as sysdba
Connected.
//localhost/CDB1> connect sys/oracle as sysdba
Connected.

Always check which database

By the way, when I prepare a script that can make some damages when not run at the correct place, I usually add a test on DBID on top of it:

CDB1> whenever sqlerror exit failure;
CDB1> select 0/decode(dbid,'944121612',1,0) from v$database;
 
Error starting at line : 1 in command -
select 0/decode(dbid,'944121612',1,0) from v$database
Error report -
ORA-01476: divisor is equal to zero

Different passwords

Of course, you should have different passwords on prod and test databases. However, I prefer to have passwords in a wallet (external password file) and then you will always have the correct identification as it is recorded for each service name.

 

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